63 LiFePO4 Battery Terminologies You Need To Know

LiFePO4 (Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries are a type of rechargeable battery. These batteries have gained popularity in recent years due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and safety features. 

As with any industry, it is important to have a basic understanding of the terminologies. These are used to effectively communicate and make informed decisions. This is particularly important in the battery industry. Knowing the right terminology can mean the difference between success and failure.

The purpose of this blog is to provide a comprehensive list of 63 LiFePO4 battery terminologies. These range from basic to advanced LiFePO4 battery terminologies. This will help readers gain a deeper understanding of the technology. We aim at helping people make informed decisions when choosing, using, and maintaining LiFePO4 batteries.

Basic LiFePO4 terminologies

1.Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)

A type of rechargeable battery chemistry that uses lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. This is the name of the battery. It is derived from the battery's chemical composition.


Cathode is the positive electrode in a battery that receives electrons during discharge. It is one of the two terminals in a battery.


Anode is the negative electrode in a battery that releases electrons during discharge. It is the second terminal of the battery.


An electrolyte is the liquid or gel substance in a battery that allows ions to move between the cathode and anode.


The amount of energy a battery can store. It is usually measured in ampere-hours (Ah).


C-rate is the abbreviation for Charge Rate. It is the rate at which a battery is charged or discharged, expressed as a multiple of its capacity.

7.State of Charge (SOC)

The percentage of a battery's capacity that is currently available. It is commonly known as the charge or battery percentage.

8.State of Health (SOH)

The condition of a battery, including its capacity and ability to hold a charge. It indicates how well the LiFePO4 battery is doing.

9.Cycle life

The number of charge and discharge cycles a battery can undergo before its capacity degrades. For AoLithium's LiFePO4 battery, the cycle life is 4000. It means an AoLithium LiFePO4 battery can be charged and discharged 4000 times without any damage.


The rate at which a battery loses its charge over time when not in use. It is the idle discharge rate without any power drain.


The condition in which a battery is charged beyond its safe limit can cause damage or failure.


The condition in which a battery is discharged beyond its safe limit. Over-discharge can cause damage or failure.

Advanced LiFePO4 battery terminologies

13.Coulombic efficiency

The ratio of the amount of charge put into a battery during charging to the amount of charge released during discharging. It is a measure of the stored power vs the released power.

14.Peak power

Peak power is the maximum amount of power a battery can deliver for a short period. It is usually measured in watts.

15.Energy density

The amount of energy stored per unit of volume or weight of a battery.

16.Active Material

The active material is a substance that undergoes chemical reactions. It produces electrical energy in a LiFePO4 battery.

17.Power density

The amount of power that can be delivered per unit of volume or weight of a battery.


A microscopic filament can grow within a battery and cause a short circuit.


A separator is a thin layer of material that separates the cathode and anode in a battery. It allows ions to pass through.

20.Anode material

The material used in the anode of a battery is typically made of graphite, silicon, or lithium.

21.Cathode material

The material used in the cathode of a battery.  It is made of lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, or lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide.

22.Solid-state battery

A type of battery that uses a solid electrolyte instead of a liquid or gel electrolyte.

23.Polymer electrolyte

A type of electrolyte made of a polymer material. It is typically used in lithium-ion batteries.

24.Safety vent

A feature in a battery that allows gases to escape if the internal pressure becomes too high.

25.Thermal management

The use of cooling or heating systems to maintain the temperature of a battery within a safe range.


A cell is the basic unit of a battery that contains a cathode, anode, and electrolyte. It is the main compartment where a reaction occurs during charging and discharging.


A group of cells connected to increase voltage or capacity. AoLithium's LiFePO4 battery contains 4 cells in a module.


A collection of modules or cells that are assembled into a single unit for use in an application.


The process of equalizing the voltage and capacity of individual cells in a battery pack.

30.BMS (Battery Management System)

A device or software that monitors and controls the charging and discharging of a battery pack. AoLithium's LiFePO4 batteries come with an in-built BMS.

31.Temperature coefficient

The rate at which a battery's capacity changes with temperature. Every battery has an optimal temperature at which it is at its peak power.

32.Thermal runaway

A condition in which a battery overheats and self-destructs due to an internal short circuit or another defect.

33.Memory effect

A phenomenon in which a battery's capacity is reduced when it is repeatedly charged and discharged to the same level.

34.Capacity fades

The gradual loss of a battery's capacity over time and cycles.

35.Calendar life

Calendar life is the lifespan of a battery based on its age, even if it has not been used or cycled.

36.Environmental impact

The impact of a battery on the environment during its production, use, and disposal.


The process of recovering materials from used batteries and reusing them to make new batteries.


The practice of repurposing used batteries for other applications. It is done after their initial use in a vehicle or other device.

39.Energy storage system (ESS)

A system that stores energy for later use. It is also called a power kit.

40.Hybrid system

A system that combines two or more types of energy storage technologies. Such as batteries and capacitors.


A home energy storage system developed by Tesla that uses Li-ion batteries.


The amount of power consumed by a device or system.


A device that converts DC power from a battery or other source into AC power for use by a device or system.

Technical terminologies of LiFePO4 battery


The electrical potential difference between the cathode and anode of a battery. Voltage is measured in volts.


The flow of electrical charge through a circuit. The unit of current is Amperes.


Power is the rate of transfer of energy. It is measured in watts.

47.Watt-hour (Wh)

A unit of energy equals one watt of power consumed over one hour.

48.Discharge rate

The rate at which a battery releases its stored energy is usually measured in C.

49.Charge rate

The rate at which a battery is charged is usually measured in C.

50.Nominal voltage

The approximate voltage at which a battery operates. It is lower than the battery's maximum voltage.

51.Maximum voltage

The highest safe operating voltage of a battery. It is the highest power limit of a battery. An AoLithium battery can provide 12V.

52.Cut-off voltage

The lowest safe operating voltage of a battery, below which it should not be discharged.

53.Internal resistance

The resistance to the flow of current within a battery. Internal resistance can affect its efficiency and performance.

54.Open circuit voltage

The voltage of a battery when it is not connected to a load or charger.

55.Closed circuit voltage

The voltage of a battery, when it is connected to a load or charger and current, is flowing.

56.Depth of Discharge (DOD)

The percentage of a battery's capacity that has been discharged during use.

57.Charging profile

The specific charging current and voltage used to charge a battery. It can affect the battery's performance and lifespan.

58.Discharging profile

The specific current and voltage used to discharge a battery.

59.Fast charging

A charging method that can quickly charge a battery to a high percentage of its capacity in a short amount of time.

60.Slow charging

A charging method that takes a long time to charge a battery to its full capacity.

61.Depth of Charge (DOC)

The percentage of a battery's capacity that has been charged during use.

62.Nominal Voltage

Nominal voltage refers to the approximate voltage of a battery. It is measured when the battery is fully charged and under a normal operating load.

63.Nominal Capacity

Nominal capacity refers to the approximate amount of energy that a battery can store when it is fully charged. It is typically expressed in ampere-hours (Ah) or milliampere-hours (mAh).


The LiFePO4 terminologies are essential for a better understanding of the battery. These terminologies can vary from basic LiFePO4 battery terms to Advance and technical ones. Every LiFePO4 terminology refers to a specific concept or part of the battery. This makes it ideal to understand the terms before making a purchase. Having a better understanding of the LiFePO4 terminologies will help you make the right battery choices.

In conclusion, knowing the terminologies related to LiFePO4 batteries is essential for anyone. Anyone who works with or is interested in these types of batteries should have the know-how. By understanding these terminologies, users can make informed decisions.  They can also ensure the safe and effective use of batteries. Also, it can help users keep up-to-date with the latest developments in the industry.

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